The use of outside scholarly resources (articles, books, etc) will be rewarded but is not required. The recommended length per answer is 150 words. Answer each questio

The use of outside scholarly resources (articles, books, etc) will be rewarded but is not required.  The recommended length per answer is 150  words.  Answer each question using complete sentences, paragraph structure, and academic/professional language. Keep use of the first-person voice to a minimum. Use APA style for all citations and Works cited
1) After having read the  Download the  Pew Study on Social Media and Teens, what stood out for you as interesting, memorable or surprising?  Explain why these aspects were chosen. 

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2) On the whole, do you feel social media to be a positive or negative force in the lives of young people?  Provide evidence to support your position. 
3) If you were a parent, how would you manage social media and technology in the lives of your children?  

FOR RELEASE MAY 31, 2018
BY Monica Anderson and Jingjing Jiang
FOR MEDIA OR OTHER INQUIRIES:
Monica Anderson, Research Associate
Aaron Smith, Associate Director
Tom Caiazza, Communications Manager
202.419.4372
www.pewresearch.org
RECOMMENDED CITATION
Pew Research Center, May 2018, “Teens, Social
Media & Technology 2018”

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About Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes
and trends shaping America and the world. It does not take policy positions. It conducts public
opinion polling, demographic research, content analysis and other data-driven social science
research. The Center studies U.S. politics and policy; journalism and media; internet, science and
technology; religion and public life; Hispanic trends; global attitudes and trends; and U.S. social
and demographic trends. All of the Center’s reports are available at www.pewresearch.org. Pew
Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder.
© Pew Research Center 2018

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Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018
Until recently, Facebook had
dominated the social media
landscape among America’s youth –
but it is no longer the most popular
online platform among teens,
according to a new Pew Research
Center survey. Today, roughly half
(51%) of U.S. teens ages 13 to 17 say
they use Facebook, notably lower
than the shares who use YouTube,
Instagram or Snapchat.
This shift in teens’ social media use
is just one example of how the
technology landscape for young
people has evolved since the Center’s
last survey of teens and technology
use in 2014-2015. Most notably,
smartphone ownership has become a
nearly ubiquitous element of teen
life: 95% of teens now report they
have a smartphone or access to one.
These mobile connections are in turn fueling more-persistent online activities: 45% of teens now
say they are online on a near-constant basis.
The survey also finds there is no clear consensus among teens about the effect that social media
has on the lives of young people today. Minorities of teens describe that effect as mostly positive
(31%) or mostly negative (24%), but the largest share (45%) says that effect has been neither
positive nor negative.
These are some of the main findings from the Center’s survey of U.S. teens conducted March 7-
April 10, 2018. Throughout the report, “teens” refers to those ages 13 to 17.
YouTube, Instagram and Snapchat are the most
popular online platforms among teens
% of U.S. teens who …
Note: Figures in first column add to more than 100% because multiple responses were
allowed. Question about most-used site was asked only of respondents who use multiple
sites; results have been recalculated to include those who use only one site. Respondents
who did not give an answer are not shown.
Source: Survey conducted March 7-April 10, 2018.
“Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018”
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

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70
56
36
Less than $30K
$30K -$74,999
$75K or more
Facebook is no longer the dominant online platform among teens
The social media landscape in which teens reside looks markedly different than it did as recently
as three years ago. In the Center’s 2014-2015 survey of teen social media use, 71% of teens
reported being Facebook users. No other platform was used by a clear majority of teens at the
time: Around half (52%) of teens said they used Instagram, while 41% reported using Snapchat.
In 2018, three online platforms other than Facebook – YouTube, Instagram and Snapchat – are
used by sizable majorities of this age group. Meanwhile, 51% of teens now say they use Facebook.
The shares of teens who use Twitter and Tumblr are largely comparable to the shares who did so in
the 2014-2015 survey.
For the most part, teens tend to use similar
platforms regardless of their demographic
characteristics, but there are exceptions.
Notably, lower-income teens are more likely to
gravitate toward Facebook than those from
higher-income households – a trend
consistent with previous Center surveys.
Seven-in-ten teens living in households
earning less than $30,000 a year say they use
Facebook, compared with 36% whose annual
family income is $75,000 or more. (For details
on social media platform use by different
demographic groups, see Appendix A.)
It is important to note there were some
changes in question wording between Pew Research Center’s 2014-2015 and 2018 surveys of teen
social media use. YouTube and Reddit were not included as options in the 2014-2015 survey but
were included in the current survey. In addition, the 2014-2015 survey required respondents to
provide an explicit response for whether or not they used each platform, while the 2018 survey
presented respondents with a list of sites and allowed them to select the ones they use.1 Even so, it
1 These surveys also used different methods in recruiting teens, as well as different methods for interviewing those who did not have a home
internet connection. In 2018, those without home internet were interviewed via telephone, while the 2014-2015 respondents were given a
web-enabled device and internet service to complete the survey. Please read the Methodology section for full details on how the 2018 survey
was conducted.
Lower-income teens are more likely
than teens from higher-income
households to use Facebook
% of U.S. teens, by annual household income, who say
they use Facebook
Source: Survey conducted March 7-April 10, 2018.
“Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018”
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

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is clear the social media environment today revolves less around a single platform than it did three
years ago.2
When it comes to which one of these online platforms teens use the most, roughly one-third say
they visit Snapchat (35%) or YouTube (32%) most often, while 15% say the same of Instagram. By
comparison, 10% of teens say Facebook is their most-used online platform, and even fewer cite
Twitter, Reddit or Tumblr as the site they visit most often.
Again, lower-income teens are far more likely than those from higher income households to say
Facebook is the online platform they use most often (22% vs. 4%). There are also some differences
related to gender and to race and ethnicity when it comes to teens’ most-used sites. Girls are more
likely than boys to say Snapchat is the site they use most often (42% vs. 29%), while boys are more
inclined than girls to identify YouTube as their go-to platform (39% vs. 25%). Additionally, white
teens (41%) are more likely than Hispanic (29%) or black (23%) teens to say Snapchat is the online
platform they use most often, while black teens are more likely than whites to identify Facebook as
their most used site (26% vs. 7%).
2 Other studies on teens’ social media use have shown a similar shift in digital platform use among teens. See The Associated Press-NORC
Center for Public Affairs Research’s 2017 report: http://apnorc.org/projects/Pages/HTML%20Reports/instagram-and-snapchat-are-most-
popular-social-networks-for-teens.aspx#footnote-1

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Teens have mixed views on the impact of social media on their lives
Despite the nearly ubiquitous presence of social media in their lives, there is no clear consensus
among teens about these platforms’ ultimate impact on people their age. A plurality of teens (45%)
believe social media has a neither positive nor negative effect on people their age. Meanwhile,
roughly three-in-ten teens (31%) say social media has had a mostly positive impact, while 24%
describe its effect as mostly negative.
Given the opportunity to explain their views in their own words, teens who say social media has
had a mostly positive effect tended to stress issues related to connectivity and connection with
others. Some 40% of these respondents say that social media has had a positive impact because it
helps them keep in touch and interact with others. Many of these responses emphasize how social
media makes it easier to communicate with family and friends and to connect with new people:
“I think social media have a positive effect because it lets you talk to family members far
away.” (Girl, age 14)
“I feel that social media can make people my age feel less lonely or alone. It creates a
space where you can interact with people.” (Girl, age 15)
“It enables people to connect with friends easily and be able to make new friends as well.”
(Boy, age 15)
Others in this group cite the greater access to news and information that social media facilitates
(16%), or being able to connect with people who share similar interests (15%):
“My mom had to get a ride to the library to get what I have in my hand all the time. She
reminds me of that a lot.” (Girl, age 14)
“It has given many kids my age an outlet to express their opinions and emotions, and
connect with people who feel the same way.” (Girl, age 15)
Smaller shares argue that social media is a good venue for entertainment (9%), that it offers a
space for self-expression (7%) or that it allows teens to get support from others (5%) or to learn
new things in general (4%).
“Because a lot of things created or made can spread joy.” (Boy, age 17)

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“[Social media] allows us to
communicate freely and see what
everyone else is doing. [It]
gives us a voice that can reach
many people.” (Boy, age 15)
“We can connect easier with people
from different places and we are
more likely to ask for help through
social media which can save
people.” (Girl, age 15)
There is slightly less consensus among
teens who say social media has had a
mostly negative effect on people their age.
The top response (mentioned by 27% of
these teens) is that social media leads to
more bullying and the overall spread of
rumors.
“Gives people a bigger audience to
speak and teach hate and belittle
each other.” (Boy, age 13)
“People can say whatever they
want with anonymity and I think
that has a negative impact.” (Boy,
age 15)
“Because teens are killing people
all because of the things they see
on social media or because of the
things that happened on social
media.” (Girl, age 14)
Meanwhile, 17% of these respondents feel these platforms harm relationships and result in less
meaningful human interactions. Similar shares think social media distorts reality and gives teens
Teens have mixed views on social media’s effect on
people their age; many say it helps them connect
with others, some express concerns about bullying
Note: Respondents who did not give an answer are not shown. Verbatim responses have
been coded into categories, and figures may add up to more than 100% because
multiple responses were allowed.
Source: Survey conducted March 7-April 10, 2018.
“Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018”
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

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an unrealistic view of other people’s lives (15%), or that teens spend too much time on social media
(14%).
“It has a negative impact on social (in-person) interactions.” (Boy, age 17)
“It makes it harder for people to socialize in real life, because they become accustomed to
not interacting with people in person.” (Girl, age 15)
“It provides a fake image of someone’s life. It sometimes makes me feel that their life is
perfect when it is not.” (Girl, age 15)
“[Teens] would rather go scrolling on their phones instead of doing their homework, and
it’s so easy to do so. It’s just a
huge distraction.” (Boy, age 17)
Another 12% criticize social media for
influencing teens to give in to peer
pressure, while smaller shares express
concerns that these sites could lead to
psychological issues or drama.
Vast majority of teens have access to
a home computer or smartphone
Some 95% of teens now say they have or
have access to a smartphone, which
represents a 22- percentage-point
increase from the 73% of teens who said
this in 2014-2015. Smartphone ownership
is nearly universal among teens of
different genders, races and ethnicities
and socioeconomic backgrounds.
A more nuanced story emerges when it
comes to teens’ access to computers.
While 88% of teens report having access
to a desktop or laptop computer at home,
access varies greatly by income level.
Smartphone access nearly ubiquitous among teens,
while having a home computer varies by income
% of U.S. teens who say they have or have access to a ___ at home
Note: Whites and blacks include only non-Hispanics. Hispanics are of any race. Parent’s
level of education based on highest level of education associated with a teen’s parent.
Source: Survey conducted March 7-April 10, 2018.
“Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018”
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

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24
45
56
44
20
11 2018
2014-
2015
Almost
constantly
Several
times a day
Less
often
Fully 96% of teens from households with an annual income of $75,000 or more per year say they
have access to a computer at home, but that share falls to 75% among those from households
earning less than $30,000 a year.
Computer access also varies by the level of education among parents. Teens who have a parent
with a bachelor’s degree or more are more likely to say they have access to a computer than teens
whose parents have a high school diploma or less (94% vs. 78%).
A growing share of teens describe their internet use as near-constant
As smartphone access has become more prevalent, a
growing share of teens now report
using the internet on a near-constant basis. Some 45%
of teens say they use the internet “almost constantly,” a
figure that has nearly doubled from the 24% who said
this in the 2014-2015 survey. Another 44% say they go
online several times a day, meaning roughly nine-in-ten
teens go online at least multiple times per day.
There are some differences in teens’ frequency of
internet use by gender, as well as race and ethnicity.
Half of teenage girls (50%) are near-constant online
users, compared with 39% of teenage boys. And
Hispanic teens are more likely than whites to report
using the internet almost constantly (54% vs. 41%).
45% of teens say they’re online almost
constantly
% of U.S. teens who say they use the internet, either on a
computer or a cellphone …
Note: “Less often” category includes teens who say they use the
internet “about once a day,” “several times a week” and “less
often.”
Source: Survey conducted March 7-April 10, 2018. Trend data from
previous Pew Research Center survey conducted in 2014-2015.
“Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018”
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75
83
92
97
0 50 100
Girls Boys
Have/have access
to a gaming console
Play video games
A majority of both boys and girls play video games, but gaming is nearly universal for boys
Overall, 84% of teens say they have or have access to a game
console at home, and 90% say they play video games of any kind
(whether on a computer, game console or cellphone). While a
substantial majority of girls report having access to a game console
at home (75%) or playing video games in general (83%), those
shares are even higher among boys. Roughly nine-in-ten boys
(92%) have or have access to a game console at home, and 97% say
they play video games in some form or fashion.
There has been growth in game console ownership among Hispanic
teens and teens from lower-income families since the Center’s
previous study of the teen technology landscape in 2014-2015. The
share of Hispanics who say they have access to a game console at
home grew by 10 percentage points during this time period. And
85% of teens from households earning less than $30,000 a year
now say they have a game console at home, up from 67% in 2014-
2015.
Most teen boys and girls
play video games
% of U.S. teens who say they …
Source: Survey conducted March 7-April 10,
2018.
“Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018”
PEW RESEARCH CENTER

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Acknowledgements
This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals.
Find related reports online at pewresearch.org/internet.
Primary researchers
Monica Anderson, Research Associate
Jingjing Jiang, Research Analyst
Research team
Aaron Smith, Associate Director, Research
Lee Rainie, Director, Internet and Technology Research
Kenneth Olmstead, Research Associate
Ruth Igielnik, Research Associate
Andrew Perrin, Research Analyst
Editorial and graphic design
Margaret Porteus, Information Graphics Designer
David Kent, Copy Editor
Communications and web publishing
Tom Caiazza, Communications Manager
Shannon Greenwood, Associate Digital Producer
Sara Atske, Assistant Digital Producer

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Methodology
This analysis is based on a survey that was conducted using the NORC AmeriSpeak panel.
AmeriSpeak is a nationally representative, probability-based panel of the U.S. household
population. Randomly selected U.S. households are sampled with a known, nonzero probability of
selection from the NORC National Frame, and then contacted by U.S. mail, telephone and field
interviewers (face to face). More details about the NORC AmeriSpeak panel methodology are
available here.
This particular survey featured interviews with 1,058 parents who belong to the panel and have a
teen ages 13 to 17, as well as interviews with 743 teens. Interviews were conducted online and by
telephone from March 7 to April 10, 2018. The survey was conducted by NORC.
The margin of sampling error is plus or minus 5.0 percentage points for the full sample of 743 teen
respondents and 4.5 percentage points for the full sample of 1,058 parent respondents.
The data were weighted in a multistep process that begins with the panel base sampling weights.
Panel base sampling weights for all sampled housing units are computed as the inverse of
probability of selection from the NORC National Frame (the sampling frame that is used to sample
housing units for AmeriSpeak) or address-based sample. The sample design and recruitment
protocol for the AmeriSpeak Panel involves subsampling of initial nonrespondent housing units.
These subsampled nonrespondent housing units are selected for an in-person follow-up. The
subsample of housing units selected for the nonresponse follow-up (NRFU) have their panel base
sampling weights inflated by the inverse of the subsampling rate. The base sampling weights are
further adjusted to account for unknown eligibility and nonresponse among eligible housing units.
The household-level nonresponse adjusted weights are then post-stratified to external counts for
number of households obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey. Then,
these household-level post-stratified weights are assigned to each eligible adult in every recruited
household. Furthermore, a person-level nonresponse adjustment accounts for nonresponding
adults within a recruited household. Teen panelists carry over the parent’s panel weight.
Finally, panel weights were raked to external population totals associated with age, sex, education,
race/Hispanic ethnicity, housing tenure, telephone status and Census Division. The external
population totals were obtained from the Current Population Survey. The weights adjusted to the
external population totals are the final panel weights.

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Study-specific base sampling weights are derived using a combination of the final panel weight
and the probability of selection associated with the sampled panel member. Since not all sampled
panel members respond to the survey interview, an adjustment is needed to account for and adjust
for survey nonrespondents. This adjustment decreases potential nonresponse bias associated with
sampled panel members who did not complete the survey interview for the study. Thus, the
nonresponse-adjusted survey weights for the study were adjusted via a raking ratio method to
general population totals associated with the following socio-demographic characteristics: age,
sex, education, income, race/Hispanic ethnicity and Census Division for the parent respondents,
and the following socio-demographic characteristics for the teen respondents: age, sex,
race/Hispanic ethnicity, highest level education associated with teen’s parents and Census
Division associated with the teen’s household. The weights adjusted to the 2017 March Current
Population Survey population totals are the final study weights, which were used to produce the
estimates in this report.
The following table shows the unweighted sample sizes and the error attributable to sampling that
would be expected at the 95% level of confidence for teens and parents in the survey:
Sample sizes and sampling errors for key subgroups are as follows:
Group Unweighted sample size Plus or minus …
Teens sample 743 5.0 percentage points
Parents sample 1,058 4.5 percentage points
Group Unweighted sample size Plus or minus …
Teens sample
Boys 348 7.2 percentage points
Girls 393 6.8 percentage points
White 355 7.2 percentage points
Black 129 11.9 percentage points
Hispanic 202 9.5 percentage points
13-14 301 7.8 percentage points
15-17 442 6.4 percentage points
Less than $30K 199 9.6 percentage points
$30K to $74,999 266 8.3 percentage points
$75K and up 278 8.1 percentage points
Parent’s educational attainment:
High school or less 142 11.3 percentage points
Some college 265 8.3 percentage points
College graduate+ 329 7.4 percentage points

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In addition to sampling error, one should bear in mind that question wording and practical
difficulties in conducting surveys can introduce error or bias into the findings of opinion polls.
The parent survey had a survey completion rate of 83% (1,058 completed interviews out of 1,274
screened eligible panelists). Taking account of the combined, weighted response rate for the
recruitment surveys (34%) and attrition from panel members who were removed at their request
or for inactivity, the weighted cumulative response rate for the parent survey is 8%.
The teen survey had a survey completion rate of 69% (743 completed interviews out of 1,075
screened eligible panelists for whom parental consent was granted). Taking account of the
combined, weighted response rate for the recruitment surveys (34%) and attrition from panel
members who were removed at their request or for inactivity, the weighted cumulative response
rate for the teen survey is 18%.
Pew Research Center is a nonprofit, tax-exempt 501(c)(3) organization and a subsidiary of The
Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder.
© Pew Research Center, 2018

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Appendix A: Detailed tables
Online platform use among U.S. teens, by demographic group
% of U.S. teens who say they use …
YouTube Instagram Snapchat Facebook Twitter Tumblr Reddit
U.S. teens 85 72 69 51 32 9 7
Boys 89 69 67 49 33 9 11
Girls 81 75 72 53 32 9 4
White 86 73 72 48 33 10 8
Black 79 72 77 57 29 11 5
Hispanic 85 72 64 58 36 7 7
13-14 84 63 63 47 24 7 4
15-17 86 78 74 54 38 11 9
Less than $30K 86 74 77 70 40 10 10
$30K to $74,999 84 72 71 56 30 8 4
$75K and up 85 71 64 36 30 11 8
Parent’s level of educational attainment
High school or less 85 73 73 65 35 12 6
Some college 87 73 74 61 37 9 7
College graduate+ 84 71 63 33 27 8 8
Note: Whites and blacks include only non-Hispanics. Hispanics are of any race. Parent’s level of education based on highest level of
education associated with a teen’s parent.
Source: Survey conducted March 7- April 10, 2018.
“Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018”
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Device ownership among U.S. teens, by demographic group
% of U.S. teens who say they have or have access at home to a …
Smartphone
Cellphone that is not a smartphone
Desktop or laptop computer
Gaming console
U.S. teens 95 29 88 84
Boys 93 27 89 92
Girls 97 31 88 75
White 94 25 90 87
Black 94 32 89 78
Hispanic 95 34 82 81
13-14 94 26 88 86
15-17 95 30 88 82
Less

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